Ten years ago I embarked on a project to chart the connections between the “Jack the Ripper” case and my hometown of Kingston upon Hull, or Hull as it is often referred to. I started out with a single suspect, Robert D’Onston Stephenson, and embarked on planning, researching and writing “Jack the Ripper – From Hell, From Hull.”
As time progressed my tally of suspects increased, from one, to fourteen! I also carried out research into the contemporary newspaper articles published in the Hull press between 1888 and 1988, uncovering two giant folders of research.
So, when it came to writing the book I could no longer fit all the research into one volume, and one volume became two, two became four, and today the current tally stands at
The newspaper reports I had uncovered went into a single volume, however, as the volume was so large they were split into two volumes, resulting in the release of;
“Jack the Ripper” – Newspapers from Hull Vol I, which covers the year 1888
“Jack the Ripper” – Newspapers from Hull Vol II, which covers 1889 – 1988
The material also gave me enough information to write;
Leather Apron, “Jack the Ripper” and the Whitechapel Murders of 1888
I had also been researching the local connection between Michael Maybrick and Florence Maybrick in Hull. The research from that project went into;
“Jack the Ripper” and the Maybrick Family
Researching the case also gave me lots of information on each victim, I was particularly interested in three non canonical victims, but in researching one I came across a wealth of material that made it into;
Annie Chapman – Wife, Mother, Victim
Finally I also had enough material on Frederick Bailey Deeming to give him and his criminal deeds a book of their own. This resulted in the release of;
Frederick Bailey Deeming – “Jack the Ripper” or Something Worse?
“Jack the Ripper” From Hell, From Hull? Was growing so much now that it spawned another spin off,
“Jack the Ripper” – The Black Magic Myth, about the life, career, reputation and suspect candidacy of Robert D’Onston Stephenson. It was a book that started out a decade ago, working with a pen and paper at our old house in East Hull, and which has finally been completed for publication.
There are still two more “Jack the Ripper” titles on the way. As mentioned earlier the suspect tally with links to my hometown was 14! With that in mind the next two releases will be;
“Jack the Ripper” The Hull Connection,
Edwin Brough, Scalby Manor and the Hunt for “Jack the Ripper.”
Finally a decade on I can safely say that “Jack the Ripper” The Black Magic Myth is complete and finally the life of Robert D’Onston Stephenson can be recorded.
Thank you to everyone who helped out, especially Howard Brown for his foreword.
Thank you to Miika and the Creativia Team, and thank you to my family for their support.
All the books are available now on Amazon as either kindle or paperback editions.
The past week
In the past week I had the opportunity to peruse some old Hull newspapers that covered the years 1889 to 1940. Among the newspapers were several articles pertaining to Jack the Ripper and the Whitechapel Murders. I was able to collect copies of articles on the likes of Sir Charles Warren, Sir Melville Macnaghten, and several other police officials, who were in service during the “Autumn of Terror.”
I was also able to obtain copies of newspaper reports on several suspects, from Frederick Bailey Deeming, James and Florence Maybrick, Charles LeGrand, Francis Tumblety, and several other suspects that are rarely discussed despite their candidacy being much stronger than the likes of some who have been mentioned in the past!
I was also able to collect material, including newspaper reports, and material gleaned from primary sources on the likes of Annie Millwood, Ada Wilson, Emma Elizabeth Smith, Martha Tabram, Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Susan Ward, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, The Whitehall Mystery, Mary Jane Kelly, Annie Farmer, Rose Mylett, Elizabeth Jackson, Alice McKenzie, the Pinchin Street Torso, and Frances Coles, as well as several other victims who were killed in the vicinity in the months after the initial “Jack the Ripper” scare!
This Saturday I had the pleasure of lecturing at the Western Library, on Boulevard, off Hessle-road in West Hull. The library is opposite the former home of one Frederick Richard Chapman, and close to the site of one of the Hull Dispensary’s that he worked at, and the former church where he was a church warden. The library itself is an historical gem, built in 1895 and being the first in Hull to be erected using public funding. The library closed in 2011 and reopened only recently after a £800,000 regeneration project and I must say it is a lovely bright place with many of the historical features kept for future generations to admire. Among the improvements were the erection of extra meeting rooms, a lift, extra shelving, solar roof panels, and a new IT facility. The original Victorian counter is still present, and many of the walls have been restored.
The lecture was arranged by The Friends of Hull Library, who asked that I go along and discuss Hull’s Ghostly Myths and Legends. It was a lovely atmosphere, and I came away with more bookings for future lectures. I was also pleased that not only was the room packed, but that the crowd had so many stories and questions in the Q+A session I held afterwards.
All in all it was a great day, and I hope to return to the library very soon.
Heritage Open Days Hull
As I mentioned in an earlier post, this weekend saw the Heritage Open Days across the UK, and closer to home in Hull. On Saturday I had the pleasure of visiting Hull’s Neptune Inn, a location that was built in the 1700’s but by the 1800’s had been closed and was sold to the Hull Customs. It was here, in 1863, that Robert D’Onston Stephenson began working as a clerk of the first class to the Hull Customs. The property is owned by the Trinity House Corporation, who Robert D’Onston Stephenson’s father worked for in his role as Receiver of Corporation Dues and Receiver of Bouyage. Two roles that were jointly operated by the Trinity House Corporation, the Hull Customs, the Hull Dock Corporation and the Hull Corporation. It was also through the same roles and employers that Lewis Carroll’s maternal grandfather worked, albeit in the 1700’s.
The massive awe inspiring building retains many of the original features after it was renovated some years ago and stands opposite the bank that was used by Frederick Bailey Deeming prior to him defrauding Messrs Reynoldson’s! Deeming arrived in Hull in November 1889 and opened up an account at the bank, and traded with them until he closed his account and wrote three cheques for jewellery at Mr. Reynoldson’s jewellery store, where the current Schue branch is on Hull’s Whitefriargate.
The bank stands on the corner of Whitefriargate and Parliament-street, another location that appears in Hull’s Ripperological history. Several people were removed to Parliament-street police station between 1888 and 1900 for “Ripper like conduct” and it acted until the central police station during the period.
Also on Parliament-street stood what was known as Messrs Tenny and Dawber, a solicitors firm that Joseph Dawber was running. Joseph was Robert D’Onston Stephenson’s cousin, and would later be locked up in Hull Gaol for fraud. Curiously, the 1891 Census shows that at the same time he was in prison, Frederick Bailey Deeming, under the alias of Harry Lawson, was also an inmate! Small world!
Leaving Neptune Inn I paid a visit to the Holy Trinity Church, where William Wilberforce was christened. It was also here that Robert D’Onston Stephenson’s father was also christened! The church is always a pleasure to walk about, and features the tombs and remembrance plaques of hundreds of former Hull notables including former Mayors, Alderman, and Merchants. The tower was open, but with my dodgy ticker and the heat I didn’t risk the climb.
After Holy Trinity Church I visited the Pacific Exchange, which was advertised as being open 10:00 – 15:00 but at 14:00 was already closed. Regardless I walked along to Hull’s only National Trust property, Maister’s House. The house has a magnificent staircase and upper balcony, but it was undergoing structural integrity checks, so scaffold bars and boards blocked much of what was previously on show. Hopefully they will discover the problem and save this unique location.
From Maister’s House I had a quick look around Hull’s Museum Quarter, where a collection of vintage cars were on display. Leaving the museums I headed for the Georgian Houses but discovered that the tours needed booking despite the official guide stating that no booking was required. When I enquired about the time I was told the next available tour would be in a hour and half, so I left for other locations.
Blaydes House was next on the agenda, a beautiful 18th Century property built and owned by the Blaydes family. It was the Blaydes family who built a ship named “The Bertha,” which would be later renamed “The Bounty” which was known for its infamous mutiny.
Leaving Blaydes House my next stop was St Mary’s Church, known to many as St Mary the Virgin. The church dates from the 14th Century, and is packed with historical features that make it a place to visit over and over again. Once again, for health reasons, I decided against the tower climb.
Taking in other locations, such as Ye Olde White Hart, White Hart, Sailmakers, and George Hotel, I finished the day at Hull’s Bob Carver’s fish and chips shop. A piece of Hull’s history in itself.
Frederick Bailey Deeming
This week I have been busily researching Frederick Bailey Deeming when I came across more articles pertaining to him in the Hull press. The articles, covering the period of 1894 until 1950, feature a number of local slants on Deeming’s time spent in Hull. There are retrospectives of his time spent on the run, his time in Hull Prison, and the discovery that he was a murderer.
A number of articles mentioned Deeming in passing, concentrating on Hull crime and criminals in general, with a few looking at the police officers and local government officials involved in the Deeming fraud trial of 1890.
Jack the Ripper in the Hull and Yorkshire Press 1888 – 1950
This week I searched both The Hull Packet, The Hull Daily Mail, Yorkshire Evening Post, The York Herald, and Yorkshire Gazette for any articles pertaining to Jack the Ripper. The search resulted in 277 articles featuring Jack the Ripper from the perspective of the Yorkshire press. Topics include suspects, theories, murders, police officials, and local scares. There are also a number of articles that look back at the “Autumn of Terror” as well as articles written and submitted to the Yorkshire press by police officials and theorists from the period. Among some of the most interesting are articles covering Jack the Ripper and the Black Magic theory, but sadly Robert D’Onston Stephenson does not feature!
Whilst I have been housebound I had the pleasure of seeking out new articles in the Hull Press via digitisation projects. This has allowed me to search from the relative comfort of my home and has turned up some fascinating results.
Over the years my scope of work has covered 10 suspects with links to my home town of Kingston upon Hull, so with access to the Hull Daily Mail archives I decided to search for any articles pertaining to any of the 10 suspects, resulting in the finding of numerous articles on the likes of Frederick Bailey Deeming, and even some material from the 1920’s exploring Lewis Carroll’s connections to the city. Among the articles were many reports on the Whitechapel Murders, many of which I have never seen before, and other similar atrocities and Ripper scares. There was a fascinating article regarding Jack the Ripper and Black Magic, that appeared in the Hull press in the 1920’s, and some fascinating material on the likes of Betty May and Aleister Crowley.
New Photographic Finds:
In the last 6 years I have searched and searched for a photograph showing the birthplace of Hull born Robert D’Onston Stephenson. Despite poring over hundreds of books, webpages, and photo archives I could not trace an image, then, within the space of a week, I uncovered not one, but two!! The images show two different views of the Stephenson family home. One from the street facing the property from a side and showing the neighbouring houses, the other shows the property from the front, but at a much later date!! Needless to say I am very excited about these images.
This month marks my third year on social networking site Twitter. It has seen me post almost 7,000 tweets, and I have a little over 900 followers. The site has become a useful networking tool for likeminded Ripperologists, Historians, and True Crime followers. Here is to another 3 years!!
Tomorrow, April 20th, marks the 171st birthday of Robert D’Onston Stephenson. Stephenson, who was born at 35 Charles-street, Sculcoates, Hull, was suspected of being Jack the Ripper by George Marsh, an unemployed iron monger, in December 1888.
Detective Inspector Thomas Roots of the Criminal Investigation Department, Scotland Yard, did not take the claims seriously and Stephenson was, at the time, ruled out as a suspect. Despite this numerous books have followed citing him as a suspect.
Stephenson worked in Hull at the Hull Customs House, which was situated at the Neptune Inn, on Whitefriargate, Hull. The site today is occupied at street level by “Boots” and “The Works” but once a year, during the Heritage Open Days, the upper floor is open to the public.
During a recent research trip I was fortunate enough to uncover a photograph of the birthplace of Robert D’Onston Stephenson, a building that is no longer there. Sadly Charles-street was partially destroyed during the construction of Freetown Way and his birthplace today is occupied by offices and a car park!!!
Last week I had the pleasure of visiting Howden, a village approx 26 miles west of Hull and former home of both Robert D’Onston Stephenson’s wife and Frederick Richard Chapman. The day was dull and damp but being by Annie Stephenson’s grave made up for the wet weather. I visited the cemetery where the workhouse records claim she was buried, the site of the workhouse were she passed away, the site of the original workhouse, and the site of the family home of Frederick Richard Chapman. I came away with some new information and some new leads and it was nice to see the Howden Minister and walk among the ancient graves.
Every year around this time I always post a Year in Review, showing the books, magazines, articles, TV shows and research that other Ripperologists have done throughout the year, but this past year has seen so many changes and I have been so busy that I have not really kept up with the latest developments. Plus a major hard-drive explosion and the loss of several files didn’t help. Luckily much of the material was on pen-drives. So this year I thought I would write a year in review based on my research, rather than other peoples work, to show what has been done locally and nationally.
Sadly in early November I was back in hospital with my heart, investigations are ongoing, and hopefully next year the cardiologists will get to the bottom of it.
Jack the Ripper - From Hell, From Hull? Vol I Robert D’Onston Stephenson 261,423 words over 362 pages
Jack the Ripper - From Hell, From Hull? Vol II Frederick Bailey Deeming 207,113 words over 259 pages
Jack the Ripper - From Hell, From Hull? Vol III 66,493 words over 101 pages
Jack the Ripper - From Hell, From Hull? - Newspapers From Hull 104,379 words over 133 pages
Frederick Bailey Deeming and the Murder of Mary Jane Langley 101,831 words over 136 pages
Frederick Bailey Deeming in the International Press 175,320 words over 200 pages
Mike Covell’s Haunted Hull 133,521 words over 217 pages
Mike Covell’s Haunted Hull - The Press Perspective 31,256 words over 43 pages
Mike Covell’s Haunted Hull - Paranormal Hull 108,087 words over 155 pages
Emily Dimmock Camden Town Murder Project 37,633 words over 35 pages
The History of the Dawber family in Hull 1700-2000 15,296 words over 31 pages
Untitled Fact vs Fiction Project 161,669 words over 165 pages
Thank you for a great year:
One of the most important aspects of any research trip, other than the research of course, is the planning and preparation that goes on in the days leading up to a trip. In the past I had thought about spending a day at the British Library in London, but during my previous visits to the Capitol I just didn’t have the time to squeeze in a visit. This week I was able to plan a day in London and visit the library to spend some time researching certain aspects of the case. With primary research on Jack the Ripper, From Hell, From Hull? Vol. I coming to a close I thought it would be the best, and probably last time I would get to visit before the final copy was ready. The trip would be one of both primary and secondary resources, taking in correspondence, financial papers, and articles from the period, coupled with material written after the fact. Some of these have often been alluded to, but never published and they proved to be quiet interesting. They would include,
Robert D’Onston Stephenson and Grant Richards
Robert D’Onston Stephenson and Theosophy
Robert D’Onston Stephenson and the Workhouse
Robert D’Onston Stephenson and Betty May’s Tiger Woman
Robert D’Onston Stephenson and Highgate Hill Infirmary
Robert D’Onston Stephenson and the Islington Board of Guardians
With these topics in mind I searched for both primary and secondary sources associated with Stephenson and Co, and my searches came back time and time again with two locations, the most important of these, holding the most information, was the British Library. I had arranged to see a collection of books and files to cover the majority of the topics above and packed my bag for the trip, booking my tickets online.
The train journey began from Hull at 7.40 on a very wet Friday morning. The last time I had taken this journey was the day my father passed away, it felt strange, but at the same time it felt right. Dad loved history and was the first person I showed my research to.
The first stop on the journey was Hessle Station, a place associated with several notable families, and several names that appear in Jack the Ripper, From Hell, From Hull? Vol. III. The station itself retains much of the Victorian architecture, but now stands in the shadow of the modern monolith that is the Humber Bridge. The train eventually passes the Hearfield family mill at Little Switzerland. It was here at the black mill that the Hearfield family crushed chalk, the present day Humber Bridge Country park being the site of their quarry. Thomas Hearfield was a Hull based Solicitor who was often called in to defend Richard Stephenson Junior in the 1870’s.
Another station on the way is Goole, a location associated with Annie Deary in the later years of her life. From the station one can see the cranes that dominate the docks, as well as both the Victorian and more modern water towers.
Thorne North is another station stop and another location associated with Annie Deary. It was in Thorne that Deary was born, and registered in the 1841 Census with her parents. The station retains much of its Victorian fittings and fixtures, and the main station house dominates the outward bound platform side, albeit with modern automatic doors.
A quick change at Doncaster and I was on the much quicker train that sped through the English countryside to London, arriving at 10.45.
After completing my pre-registration at the British Library I left my belongings at the locker room and with writing pad, laptop, and wish list made my way to the Rare Books Room. The first thing that strikes you about the British Library is the size, it is essentially a multi-storey building with lifts and stairs and very much reminded me of Relativity by M.C. Escher. Lifts, stairs and escalators going back and forth and I got lost in the building at least once during the day.
The Rare Book Room is enormous, and after familiarising myself with the layout and rules I approached the desk and found that my items were ready. Within minutes I had sat down and found some of the material I was looking for. These gave new insights into some of the aspects of Robert D’Onston Stephenson’s life and it surprised me that despite the age of the material it had never been published in recent years. I typed up the relevant passages and sought out some other material. I spent from 11.00 until 13.00 in the rare book room and managed to come out with a pile of material that I had typed up and written up onto an A4 pad.
I still had more material to look at, but it was on order and could take up to 70 minutes for delivery so I went for lunch. Outside of the British Library is a massive seating area with numerous café’s and coffee houses. It was a warm afternoon and quiet busy. After eating lunch I realised I still had some time to spare so visited the Sci Fi exhibition being held at the British Library, entitled Out of this World. This involved a lengthy timeline, finely illustrated by books, and periodicals, and touched on famous authors, stories, theories, ideas, shows, and comic book heroes. Sadly photos were not allowed, which is a shame as the exhibition had some amazing set pieces featuring giant flying saucers, talking robots, giant metal bugs, and props from Doctor Who.
Heading back to library I headed for the Humanities Room where one of the items I requested had been delivered. I spent some time in here looking for the relevant information before returning the book and heading to the Rare Books Room for the final stint of my research. I sat here until 5 o’clock and found letters that were pertinent to my research, reading and copying them out. I didn’t get to see everything I wanted to see, but found some fascinating snippets on Robert D’Onston Stephenson that had never been discussed before and has opened up new avenues of research for the future.
It is always nice to have direct access to the source material and to not have to rely on others for it. I also came across several articles on Frederick Bailey Deeming that will come in handy at some point.
Leaving the British Library I headed for the tube to take a trip to Kensington with a view to visiting a Family History Centre. Turning up in Kensington the building I sought had closed. Although this was something of a setback and I was quiet disappointed I decided to visit the nearby museums. First of all I took in the Victoria and Albert Museum, a building that was so big I got lost and had to ask for directions for the way out. The museum was packed with some fascinating objects but because of the name I was expecting objects and information about Victoria and Albert.
Across the road was the Natural History Museum, a location I had longed to go but never made the trip. I loved it, and spent quiet some time admiring the dinosaurs, animals and displays on offer, and hope to return with the children one day.
After leaving the museum I head back via the tube for King’s Cross and my journey home. It had been a long day but well worth it as I came away with more material that I thought I would get and some information that I had thought might exist, but never imagined that it did, or that I would get my hands on it.
In the June 1896 issue of Borderland Robert D’Onston Stephenson’s wrote an article on Elementals. His article was about the work of Dr Franz Hartmann, and covered the world of vampires and elemental spirits. The article stated,
II-Elementals. Borderland, July 1896. A CORRESPONDENT, signing himself “R. D’O.,” to whom I submitted the foregoing paper, writes me as follows: ” The doctor, in his otherwise very able paper on this subject, makes one great and fundamental error, which to a great extent destroys the value of his communication. He treats of two essentially different classes of beings as being identical, and assumes that the undoubted visitations of elementaries to human beings are made by ‘ Vampires.’ Now ‘vampires’ and elementaries have scarcely anything in common, either in their origin, their nature, or their temperament. They are two absolutely distinct species of spirits. ” But before I proceed to their differentiation, a few words as to these visitations. In the first place there is no doubt that they actually do take place: everyone who has investigated the subject knows instances where women of great intellectual powers, and having no tendency whatever to hysteria or illusions of any kind (being at the same time persons of undoubted veracity), claim that they have been-and are-visited in this manner. ” The immense mass of evidence, collected from many countries, by different scientific observers - medical men and others-cannot be set aside. Doubtless, if only one or two cases existed, we should explain them by the one word-’ hysteria’ ; but the accumulated mass of facts from so many different temperaments cannot be dealt with in this manner. We must accept the facts, though we may differ as to their cause. And as to this there are only three solutions possible :-1. That they are purely the product of a too vivid imagination, probably assisted by hysteria ; 2. That the visitants are, what they usually represent themselves to be, spirits of predeceased lovers ; 3. That they are other spirits, ‘elementaries’ or ‘vampires,’ masquerading as spirits of the dead. ” The answer to the first hypothesis is, that, as a rule, the recipients of these visits are, more frequently than not, people not distinguished for imaginative powers. And the slightest reflection will show that an enormous fund of creative imagination must exist to make a woman absolutely certain that her lover is present with her as tangible as in life. ” And not only do these manifestations take place, but, in many cases, long conversations are held, sometimes for hours together; questions are asked and answered, and replies (sometimes true, but usually false) obtained which could not have emanated from the brain of the querist, being sometimes accurate in-formation of circumstances which could by no possibility have been known to her. Further, these visitations are frequently made to men, when, of course, the visitor is of female form. Another fact, difficult to account for on the first hypothesis, is that these visits have been, paid to people who had never heard of such things, and who were Philistines of the Philistines regarding all, kinds of ‘ spirit’ or psychic phenomena. ” Consequently, we will dismiss theory No. 1 as untenable, and consider No. 2. That is, that the visitants, warm, living, breathing, palpitating, are the spirits of the dead. And here I will quote one who, amidst an enormous farrago of nonsense, self-deception, and false fact, has somehow stumbled on a few truths-Anna Kingsford : ‘There are no such things as “spirits of the dead,” there are only ” shades ” of the dead.’ And these shades are certainly unable to make themselves even audible, much more tangible, palpable, and warm-blooded. We know quite sufficient about them to know that. ” Then there only remains the third proposition, that they are other spirits, who, for their own purposes, assume the shape and verisimilitude of dead persons. ” Is Dr. Hartmann right then in considering them to be ‘ vampires’ ? and, if not ‘ vampires,’ what are they ? ” The learned doctor has evidently thoroughly studied the subject of vampires, enjoying as he does facilities for research in the very country which (if we except the West Indies) has from time immemorial to the present been the scene of their most awful manifestations-Hungary. “And it is quite true what Dr. H. says, that ‘persons obsessed by a vampire are always sensually inclined people ; and usually given to secret vices.’ influences ; nothing more is needed. ” Dr. H. recounts five cases within his personal know-ledge, which he attributes to the action of vampires. But, of these five, only the third and fifth in order were undoubtedly due to vampire action, and the first one is almost more than doubtful. The others were certainly not vampires. There is no reason for thinking that the old lady who undermined the health of her servants was under the power of a vampire : it being a well-known fact that many (in fact most) very old people who sleep with young and impressionable ones, gradually absorb the greater part of their vitality ; and all physicians in this country are very precise in forbidding it. ” The second case shows no trace of a vampire’s presence, of its ‘ devouring’ propensities, or of its horrible hate for the victim from whom it nightly drains the very life-blood. It is simply a case of an ‘ ” elemental ” (as the doctor says) making use of and being aided by the elementary of the suicide.’ But, as before said, an ‘ elemental ‘ is not a vampire. ” The third case, of the millers boy, is a good in-stance of one mode of action of an undoubted vampire. ” In the fourth case the ‘dual,’ there is nothing to indicate a vampire. The idea that the ‘ dual ‘ drew all the woman’s strength from her was most probably not the fact. The fifth case is doubtless a genuine one of vampirism by the living, as Dr. Hartmann asserts. ” Now then, having so far cleared the ground, what are vampires? ” They are not ‘ elementals ‘ but ‘ demons ‘ : there are no ‘demon elementals.’ Demons are differentiated from spirits in possessing souls, and this, while it intensifies their power of malignant hate towards man, renders them, in one sense, superior to sex passion. They have an infinite capacity of hatred and malignity, which they can only gratify at the expense of those who are sensuously inclined. But they have no power-as the elementals have in certain cases-to assume human form : they can give no pleasure, either mental or physical. All that they can do is to absorb, to waste, to madden, and destroy. ” Dr. Hartmann gives very correctly all the recognised symptoms of vampirism. ” The elementals, on the contrary, are in this connection perfectly harmless. So far from bearing any hatred or malice towards the recipients of their favours, they are actuated towards them by (at least so far as they are capable of feeling it) love. This is self-evident by their conduct.”
It has been claimed that Robert D’Onston Stephenson was writing in response to the following article, entitled, Seelenbraute und Vampirismus, and was written by Franz Hartmann, featuring in Lotusbluthen, Vol. 6 in the year 1895. It has been claimed that this article was the inspiration behind Robert D’Onston Stephenson’s 1896 article in Borderland entitled Elementals. This is, however, false,
Souls of brides and vampirism
Under a vampire is defined as a spirit, by which a person is possessed and the life force of that which he possesses, emaciated, exhausted his nervous energy and eventually drives him to madness and death in the arms. But what is meant by spirit? One need not like a ghost, wandering around the outside of man and in the air, thinking. The word “spirit” in German means many different things from each other, that one has the choice to mean whatever you want. It states: “Anyone who still believes in ghosts and spirit?” - And yet we are all spirits in a material itself visible envelope, for a man without spirit is a corpse, even if he is otherwise a good appetite, but spiritually dead under spirit, we understand, a unity of will and imagination, with In other words, a bustling through the thoughts and become self-confident willpower. The idea stems from the feeling and the strength of these two, which creates in the soul of human forms, whether this happens intentionally or unintentionally and intentionally and instinctively, the result remains the same. The materialist “talk a big word for left” when he says that ghosts exist only in our imagination, but it is a mind that the works of the imagination be a nothingness and that he had destroyed with his oracle, the spirit world, while but the imagination is a force which causes substantial real phenomena in our mind, and she imagines in our souls, making them suitable for our internal perception just as essential, as is an external object is to our physical senses. The stronger the imagination, the stronger occur objectively in the mirror of the soul imagined performances in front of introspection, be it through the inner face or inner feeling, and under certain circumstances, to every metaphysician are known, particularly in nerve weakness and mediumistic persons, not the so-formed shapes only for the person who created them, but even for all those present are outwardly visible and tangible objective, which is already widely known through the so-called “ghost materializations” found art. It would be a great mistake to think that were active in the creation of such “ghost” no external influences. A seed, be it physical or psychological, is developing and does not grow without a supply of nourishment and stimulation from the outside. The water and earth lead to the plant food, and the light and heat, they stimulate the growth of, to that of the delicate seed becomes a tree, finally, on which depend the skeptic who does not believe in trees, can. Similarly, by the thought that springs from the sensation, appropriate ideas from the “astral plane” dressed in the mind enter the people, get him to consciousness, and the idea may eventually become the “obsession” over which the reason and take what the government loses possession of the whole inner nature of man. Lovers and fools and fanatics of all kinds could tell them if they had sense enough to see their own state. The lover is in love with the idea, which he makes from the object of his infatuation, he creates for himself an image in his soul of his beloved, and this image is through his senses by the sight of his lover and the sound produced her voice and nourished. Another creates in his imagination, without outside help the object of his adoration, but he pulls through his lust corresponding influences, larvae, animals, monsters of all kinds, ghosts and devils from the underworld. Me into being trampled in a thought is not one of me physically different thing, and yet this idea is not “I”, I still thought of, but he is a part of my nature, which arose out of my will and my imagination, and insofar as this essence or the “spirit” of confidence in me has become, and from my own self is different, he is my other, my false ego, alterego, “dual” or like how you call it, he is into me and on my own born, alive in me “incarnate” thought of my will, a part of my nature, the lives of me and in me, and die in me or I can survive. The man is sprung from a desire and imagination “materialized” spirit, he is a composition of a sum of forces and qualities which constitute his personality is always changing. Arises in him an obsession, which gained the upper hand over his reason, so we have a special group of properties in this sum, an individualized notion within this product from idea, one to the contrary has become will within the will, from which he is born , a “spirit” in the spirit. Sun arise from the different emotions, feelings, desires and instincts of people different ideas, thoughts and spirits that get in it an individual consciousness and its false “selves” can be just as many people on Earth just wrong ” egos “of the deity, ie, self-conscious, individual, physical manifestations of a world soul. The person dies, it dissolves into its constituents on its composition, the truth in it goes into the truth, the qualities which he has borrowed from nature, are not destroyed thereby, but are returning to nature and be back by other corresponding organisms attracted to them in return to the consciousness and enter into the circle of life. This is not just with his physical, but also with his mental components of the case, everything returns to its origin, but the body of matter, spirit to spirit and passion to the source from which they originated. Thus, for example, the sexual impulse in man is no man and no flying in the air, ghost, but one will form in nature, which manifests itself in humans and animals as sex drive, it can in man be so severe that he in his reign gained over his reason. It is then a force of nature personified in man, in his mind into being trampled, a false ego that drives him to all sorts of unreasonable actions and the imagination can be any shape. Dying man hears, so that this force of nature, which was revealed to him as a sex drive and is called Kama, not to exist, but when she finds a favorable soil in other places, so diet and develop the Convention therein mental germs and reappears in other people and animals as their sex drive to the stage of their existence. In this way, the passion that has created a living person into the life and possessed him to influence even after his death to another person or take possession. Not the deceased person is, who poses as “soul groom”, but the psychic energy, which has left the deceased and which of them possessed, according to the play of his imagination and designed clothes. The dead know nothing. Similarly, among the living. Only a very ignorant man still doubted that the feelings of another human being in one can cause the same feelings and influence the thoughts of one another without the former is aware of. Death of a man who has put his life during a certain type of energy in kamischer activity, then there is still the same and then continued as a natural force, such as leaving the body heat as the heat continues to exist and reheated another body. That is why the death penalty one of ignorance springing mistake if we think that to have a detrimental effect rendered harmless. They destroyed the form, the tool, but not the driving spirit. Such forces of nature or “spirits” have no individual consciousness, no discernment or ability to think, they are influences, which become individual consciousness again until the person in whom they are revealed, and through it. These “ghosts”, which is a perverted sexual instinct in humans may give life to include the “Incubi” and “succubi” the metaphysician of the middle ages, which correspond to our modern “soul brides” and “soul grooms,” and that is meant by a ” Incubus “one in the fantasy of a sensual female form, and people created by a” Succubus “one of the female imagination sprung male form. In India the same “Mohinis” and “Pisachas” are mentioned, and Theophrastus Paracelsus called “phantoms, dragons, monsters,” etc. They are really existing being, by the concerned people themselves created and nourished by spiritual influences, they are states of mind of affected by them and prove their existence only too clearly by the disruption caused to them by the nervous system and the disintegration of the physical forces. That of knowing nothing and knowing nothing unending scholarly conceit with the exclamation “Superstition!” will answer and to have explained everything thinks does not matter. This is the most convenient way to give yourself a reputation among the ignorant and to eliminate questions about things of which you understand nothing. The vampirism is an unfortunate fact that one can not eliminate through denial. Who is it accessible, not only of influences that emanate from the remnants of the dead but also of his fellow human beings living vampirized and drained, mentally, morally and physically. To eke out in the physical as well as looking into the mental world of one at the expense of the other his existence, whether it is consciously and intentionally or unintentionally, done instinctively. Influence the thoughts of one another, without the familiar and the other where the origin, and if the ideas that the people that lived before us called into existence, could have no influence on us, there would be in the world at no progress. The spirit of a Goethe or Shakespeare lives and works today, though the personality has long since dissolved into its elements, and no one will understand by this spirit, a ghost flying around in the world. The ideas, which called into being great minds, nourish the seeds in the hearts of those who are receptive to great ideas. The same is the case with the passions. Man is an embodied spiritual strength, he disappears from the phenomenal world, but the force remains there. He is like a cloud in the sky, which comes and goes, but the air and water, they have made persist, and bring forth new cloud formations. Anyone who has studied the literature of the occult and metaphysics, where there will be no shortage of material to think about vampirism. There is a lot of events described in relation to the vampirism of the dead and the living, which may be mentioned here, but I prefer to speak from my own experience: In G. .. is a woman, in which a young man was in love. Because the same was a drunkard and vagrant, however, they scorned him, although had a great affection felt for him, and married another. From injured vanity shot the young man, and soon afterwards the young woman was attacked by an Incubus, which she visited with her at night and indulged in sexual intercourse. She could not see the “spirit”, but feel and felt about the same as would be if a person living with her. These visits were repeated very often, especially in the absence of her husband, and shattered her nerves, so that the husband himself was finally forced to seek medical advice. By strengthening the moral force of the woman was healed.
In his article Stephenson mentions the following,
. ” Dr. H. recounts five cases within his personal know-ledge, which he attributes to the action of vampires. But, of these five, only the third and fifth in order were undoubtedly due to vampire action, and the first one is almost more than doubtful. The others were certainly not vampires. There is no reason for thinking that the old lady who undermined the health of her servants was under the power of a vampire : it being a well-known fact that many (in fact most) very old people who sleep with young and impressionable ones, gradually absorb the greater part of their vitality ; and all physicians in this country are very precise in forbidding it. ” The second case shows no trace of a vampire’s presence, of its ‘ devouring’ propensities, or of its horrible hate for the victim from whom it nightly drains the very life-blood. It is simply a case of an ‘ ” elemental ” (as the doctor says) making use of and being aided by the elementary of the suicide.’ But, as before said, an ‘ elemental ‘ is not a vampire.
But in the article by Hartmann above, there is no mention of these five cases to which Stephenson alludes to, thus making it the wrong article. If we check earlier editions of Borderland, however, we find the following,
Vampires by Franz Hartmann, M.D.
This includes all five cases that Robert D’Onston Stephenson alluded to, and is therefore the correct text.
It seems like an eternity since I last discussed Robert D’Onston Stephenson or his family. Here is a post about Stephenson’s father, Richard Stephenson Senior.
There has been some discussion of late regarding the role of Richard Stephenson Snr, Robert D’Onston Stephenson’s father, whilst in Hull with several sources claiming that Stephenson was the “Treasurer for the Hull Corporation.” This is misleading and quiet frankly a load of rubbish.
To fully understand the role of Water Bailiff’s in Hull one must look back at Hull’s history. Hull during the 1700’s and 1800’s had a dock system that was expanding at an incredible rate. As such the old harbour was no longer fit for purpose, and several inland docks were created around the old town of Hull. Because of this move there was quiet a shift in taxatation and how the local organisations could take advantage of this. This resulted in the Hull Corporation, Hull Docks Committee and Hull Guild of the Holy Trinity taking a slice of the taxes that were obtained from ships coming into Hull. Any finances paid were split three ways and as such all three organisations had their own collecters. Richard Stephenson Senior, Robert D’Onston Stephenson’s father was employed by the Hull Corporation to be their collector. He was never in the role of the Treasurer.
1866 The Hull Packet and East Riding Times features the following advertisement,
WATER BAILIFF. THE TOWN COUNCIL will on the 12 of January, 1866, proceed to Elect a WATER BAILEIFF and Receiver of the Corporation Dues, who shall make that his sole business a Salary of £120 per annum, with a further [illegible] of One percent upon the total amount of [illigble] received by him. Additional information may be known at the Clerk’s Office, where written applications for the role will be received up to noon on Saturday the 6th of January 1866, By Order- Robert Wells, Town Clerk.
1866January 12th Richard Stephenson becomes Water Bailiff for the Hull Corporation. He receives a quarterly wage of £30 plus commission and expenses. A letter held at the Hull History Centre reads,
Sculcoates 12th. Jan 1866. Gentlemen, I beg to thank you for the honour you have done me in electing me to the office of Water Bailiff and Receiver of Corporation Dues. It will be my constant endeavour to merit the confidence thus reposed in me. NB. My sureties are, Mr. Robt. Dawber, Linnaeus Street. “ J. Shirley Richardson, Parliament Street. I am Gentlemen, Your most ob. Svt. Richard Stephenson. To The Mayor
1866 January 12th The Hull Packet and East Riding Times carries the following,
TOWN COUNCIL MEETING YESTERDAY. ELECTION OF WATER BAILIFF. The first business of the meeting was the election of a water bailiff to collect the corporation’s port dues. The salary is £120, with 1 per cent on the amount collected. 50 voted. Mr. Richard Stephenson, broker, was elected, having 26 votes.
Over the years I have read through the Hull Committee Meetings Minute books which features a quarterly rundown of the finances that Richard Stephenson collected, the money that he was paid, and the expenses that he was eligible for, including coal and stationary.
Furthermore, the following names can be found in the Hull and East Yorkshire Trade Directories of this period,
White’s Hull and District Trade Directory 1867
Field’s 1876 Trade Directrory of Hull
Kelly’s North and East Riding of Yorkshire Directory 1879
White’s 1882 Hull Directory
Images of the 1866 Minutes of Committee Meetings by the Hull Corporation can be seen here,